You must post two replies of at least 250 words. For each thread, you must suppo

You must post two replies of at least 250 words. For each thread, you must support your assertions with at least two scholarly citations in APA format. Each reply must incorporate at least two scholarly citation (s) in APA format. Any sources cited must have been published within the last five years. Acceptable sources include the textbook, peer-reviewed journal articles, government sources, professional association websites, etc.Reply #1 (Kayla Hix):What homeland security related law or policy do you find most useful to the cause and why?The Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 is what I find to be the most useful to the homeland security cause. When it comes to homeland security, the threat has to reach the United States in some form. The means of transportation could be by air, land, or sea. At some point along the way, the foreign person or object would have to cross some sort of checkpoint in most cases. This act is responsible for addressing transportation security, alien detention, alien smuggling, visa requirements and border surveillance. While being very extensive, the act highlights in-depth the protocols and procedures set forth to mitigate the risks of persons entering the United States illegally (Key, 2022).Should homeland security include what might be deemed emergency management functions or should it only focus on terrorism, and why?In my opinion, I believe that the Federal Emergency Management Association (FEMA) should be its own entity or at least be separated from homeland security. When I hear FEMA, my mind automatically goes to hurricane disaster relief. One can argue the ties between homeland security and disaster relief, but I do not believe the relationship is strong enough for emergency management to be a component of homeland security. I believe that homeland security should focus on terrorism both foreign and domestic and continue to adapt and evolve to the ever-changing world when it comes to ways of mitigating the imposed risks.What do you see as the 3 biggest threats/hazards to our homeland and why?The three biggest threats to our homeland are cybercrimes, terrorism by people already residing in America, and weapons of mass destruction. As more people begin to telework, cyber threats become even more prominent. The increase in the use of unsecured networks makes it easy for hackers to access information that could pose a threat to national security. The internet is such a huge part of almost every American’s everyday life that it makes its use more dangerous and increasingly vulnerable (FBI, 2020). The second biggest threat are terrorist that are already here in the states because we do not have the “checkpoint” we would usually have from those attempting to enter from abroad. This makes detection harder in the aspect that there is not a formal screening and need-to-know from any of the various border patrol agencies. The terrorist that fall into this category have the ability to conduct first-hand reconnaissance and intel thus severely jeopardizing our nation’s security. Even worse, those that have spent many years here, built relationships and gained access to potentially classified information can potentially cause grave harm to the United States. In hindsight, a domestic terrorist may give Department of Homeland Security (DHS) the upper hand by having possible track records or trends relating to the person that is a potential threat. The third threat of weapons of mass destruction is arguably a concern for various nations if not the entire world for the sole reason that just one detonation will have an effect that will cause global injury (Nemeth, 2017). Although highly dangerous and very lethal, this form of threat does not pose the consistent or prominent harm in the now as the first two.What does the Bible tell us about such things?In my above argument that there are potential insider threats, the below verse can be found in Exodus 22:7.“If a man gives to his neighbor money or goods to keep safe, and it is stolen from the man’s house, then, if the thief is found, he shall pay double.”I interpret this to mean concerning insider threats, the government entrusted you with your assigned duties and the information presented to you to uphold the agency’s values and morals. Once broken, the threat shall have to pay for their actions in double the debt. They did not go seek what they knew, it was entrusted and presented to them thus falling into this category of double jeopardy.“There are six things that the Lord hates, seven that are an abomination to him: haughty eyes, a lying tongue, and hands that shed innocent blood, a heart that devises wicked plans, feet that make haste to run to evil, a false witness who breathes out lies, and one who sows discord among brothers” (Proverbs 6:16-19). These verses describe the characteristics found in those of a terrorist. A person who tells lies, sheds the blood of the innocent, devises evil plans, and employs unrest among those who are to live peacefully amongst one another.“Put your sword back into its place. For all who take the sword will perish by the sword” (Holy Bible Matthew 26:52). The above verse states that the weapon should not be touched. Those who decide that they should use the weapon will also die by that same weapon thus directly relating to weapons of mass destruction.Reply #2 (Richard Wilson):What homeland security related law or policy do you find most useful to the cause and why?The most useful law to homeland security through a purely counterterrorism lens is without a doubt the Homeland Security Act of 2002. However, as the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) reshaped its purpose and role to be more relevant the Stafford Act of 1988 and the revisions after Hurricane Katrina in 2006, are the most useful to the cause of national security (FEMA, 2021). Providing emergency disaster relief and assistance fluidly is integral to the survival of the state. The ability to move resources, funds, responders, and recovery efforts to an affected area in a timely manner helps ensure national security (EMRA, 2006). A neglected area or group of people following a natural disaster, financial crisis, terror attack, or hazard can quickly form resentment toward the federal government. Pacifying that resentment will reduce the threat of domestic terrorism and insurgency. This act ensures the continued relevance of the DHS well into the future even as the War on Terror experiences lulls. Although these acts are useful to the cause and to the agencies they give power to, they can be controversial and should continually be reevaluated to best reflect the Constitution instead of the fear focused mindset of terrorism in the wake of 9/11.Should homeland security include what might be deemed emergency management functions or should it only focus on terrorism,As mentioned above, the fear of terrorism far outweighs the actual risk of a terror attack. Just like this week’s video mentions, you are much more likely to be affected by a natural disaster than an act of terror. Although successful terror plots are less common due to a strong counter terrorism push over the past two decades, they can only be minimized, never eliminated. Foreign terror groups await for opportunities to regain their strength and influence, domestic terrorism appears to be the bigger threat. Even as it appears that terrorism has been largely eroded, to shift focus away from countering it will see a steady resurgence. The Homeland Security Act of 2002 states that an intent of terrorism is to “intimidate or coerce a civilian population,” this could be taken even further as to influence government policy as well (Homeland Security Act, 2002). With the understanding that the DHS is created to mitigate terrorist threats that affect the government and its constituents, it is easy to broaden that focus to manage all emergency functions in an effort to ensure national security. Although the DHS was founded to counter terrorism, the federally funded agency should be a function to serve whatever the people of the United States see fit.What do you see as the 3 biggest threats/hazards to our homeland and why?Government Overreach/Corruption- By far the biggest threat to our great nation is the government deviating from the Constitution, giving itself more power while eroding the rights of citizens in the name of national security. This puts the Department of Homeland Security at the greatest friction point, establishing a dichotomy of protection and civil rights. In an effort to be more efficient, the DHS has inherited FEMA, Federal Law Enforcement, Customs, Immigration, etc (Homeland Security Act, 2002). The DHS now has control of functions that stretch from information, to counter terrorism, to allocation of emergency resources. Historically speaking, governments with seemingly unmatched power and influence can slowly erode with time or implode within. A democracy’s biggest threat is never outside of its borders but rather those hungry for power within it. The DHS must constantly check itself in a frustrating balance to place the government created of, by, and for the people first.Scarcity of Resources/Natural Disasters- Nations tend to react strongly when resources are limited. With the growing evidence of permanent and possibly irreversible climate change, people will adapt but the process can be painful. From tsunamis to super-volcanos to extreme droughts, the government must have ongoing mitigation measures to protect their constituents. Local policing agencies can assist in these efforts through community policing. Not only can local law enforcement counter terror threats or insurgent groups by cultivating relationships, but they can also analyze community resources (COPS DOJ, 2022). By analyzing community resources, projecting areas where they are more at-risk, they can prepare for natural disasters or scarce resources ahead of time (COPS, DOJ). This is evident in remote places like Dillingham, Alaska where the whole area has only a couple thousand residents. The few officers of the Dillingham Police Department go above and beyond to prepare the community from basic safety to harsh winter storms and food scarcity (ADPS, 2019). Unpredictable natural disasters and scare resources can ruin a nation economically and leave national security in peril.Overreliance on Systems/Functions- There are countless examples of the overreliance on everyday functions, ranging from electronic communication to efficient transportation, the Western World has benefitted from longstanding peace and security. In the event of a major war, natural disaster, cultural movement, financial turmoil, pandemic, or some form of a large scale shift in everyday life, national security is at risk. This risk can be mitigated to a diverse portfolio economically, not focused on one resource or manufacturing. An overreliance on electronic security and communication can leave our threat response time lacking.What does the Bible tell us about such things?Throughout the Bible we are warned of trials and tribulations, governments are strained, and the people suffer. Many verses mention the rise and fall of nations as God remains. Specifically, Luke 21:11 mentions great and powerful earthquakes, famines, and “…fearful sights and great signs shall there be from Heaven” (KJV, 2017). With the promise of natural disasters and challenging times, the Department of Homeland Security must do its part to limit the suffering of its people.

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